Coincident pair

Also known as an X-Y or XY pair, this is a microphone configuration which commonly uses two cardioid or figure-eight microphones mounted at right angles to one another, the latter preferred only for special applications. This is called a coincident pair because the two microphones are mounted as closely as possible to each other so that the sound being captured arrives at both microphones at exactly the same time, regardless of the direction of the source. All coincident configurations have to use directional microphones in order to create the necessary level differences between the two channels of the stereo system; omnidirectional microphones do not produce level differences proportional to the angle of incident sound. This technique is favored by many broadcast applications because of good mono compatibility. Recording with a coincident pair is called XY recording in the US and the UK, AB recording throughout Europe, and also crossed pairs, or normal stereo. In the US, “AB recording” means a spaced pair. See also Blumlein pairnear-coincident pair. Contrast with spaced pair.